Criminal Justice Glossary

Chapter and page references in the following glossary of terms are to Thinking About Criminal Justice in Canada.

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A

Accountability: Being held responsible for the actions that lead to a crime. Youth are seen as less accountable than adults; their accountability is measured on the basis of the greater dependency of young persons and their lower level of maturity. (ch. 14, p. 376)

Actus reus: The guilty act or external element of a criminal offence — that is, those actions and omissions that are prohibited by criminal law. If actus reus is proven beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with mens rea, an accused may be held criminally responsible for his or her conduct. (ch. 5, p. 143)

Admissible: Allowable as evidence in a case. (ch. 6, p. 165)

Adversarial system: System of justice in which cases are argued by two opposing sides, the prosecution and the defence, both of which are responsible for fully and forcefully presenting their respective positions; cases are heard and decided by an impartial judge. (ch. 4, p. 101)

Aggravating circumstances: Elements in the crime or in the life circumstances of an offender that may permit a judge to sentence the offender to a longer term in prison before being eligible to apply for parole or conditional release. (ch. 8, p. 206)

Aggregate sentences: The combined total of all sentences being served by an individual. (ch. 12, p. 298)

Ancillary powers doctrine: Process through which new police powers can be created by way of common law (also known as case law or precedent). This means that the law is developed by judges through decisions of the courts, rather than through legislative action by Parliament. (ch. 4, p. 102)

Anthropometry: The science of measuring the size, weight, and proportions of the human body in criminal cases. (ch. 7, p. 182)

Arrest: Taking or keeping of a person in custody by legal authority, especially in response to a criminal offence. (ch. 4, p. 104)

Arrest warrant: Document signed by a judge or a justice of the peace authorizing a police officer to apprehend a specific person for a specified reason and bring that person before a justice of the peace. (ch. 4, p. 104)

Assessment: The process by which professionals such as doctors, social workers, and correctional staff gain insight into a person's behaviour and situation; usually the first step toward developing an intervention plan. (ch. 9, p. 241)

Attrition: The filtering process that criminal cases undergo as they move through the criminal justice system. (ch. 1, p. 19)

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B

Battered woman syndrome: Also referred to as "battered person syndrome"; American psychologist Lenore Walker found that almost all abusive relationships involved a similar pattern of violence (described as the "cycle of violence"). This research allowed for the development of the legal defence of battered woman syndrome, which considers how this cycle of violence can affect an abused person's level of fear and perception of imminent threat — key factors of a court's assessment of self-defence. (ch. 5, p. 154)

Best interests of the child: The principle that children's interests are different from those of adults, and that all decisions affecting children must be considered in light of article 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as being focused on what is best for the children, and not what is best for their parents. (ch. 13, p. 339)

Black Bloc: First seen during social protest movements in Germany in the 1980s, Black Bloc use occasions of mass social (and peaceful) protest as cover for criminal acts of violence and anarchy. They conceal both their identities and their personal individuality, in an attempt to emphasize group solidarity, and infiltrate crowds making them difficult for police to identify and arrest. (Part Two Case Study, p. 41)

Bobbies: A slang term for British police officers, which, along with "peelers," is derived from Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel's name. (ch. 2, p. 48)

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C

Chain of command: The hierarchical structure within a military-like organization. In a typical police service, the lower ranks are the non-commissioned officers, from constables to sergeants and staff sergeants; at the higher level are the commissioned ranks, from inspectors to chiefs or commissioners. (ch. 2, p. 58)

Child Savers: Group of middle-class reformers in 19th-century North America that lobbied for public schools, public health, and the creation of a separate system of youth justice. (ch. 13, p. 337)

Coercive measures: Measures that use force or threats of punishment to make an individual comply with the orders of a person in authority. (ch. 11, p. 269)

Cognitive ability tests: Tests designed to measure reasoning, perception, memory, verbal and written language skills, mathematical ability, and problem solving. (ch. 7, p. 189)

Cognitive-behavioural strategies: Strategies, based on the theory that our thoughts, perceptions, and interpretations of the world influence our behaviour, that help us change the way we perceive or interpret a situation, which in turn changes how we behave. (ch. 9, p. 248)

Collateral contacts: People on whom probation and parole officers rely to assist in supervising offenders and confirming information provided by offenders. (ch. 10, p. 257)

Collective efficacy: The willingness of individuals in a neighbourhood to work together toward a common goal, such as crime control. (ch. 15, p. 407)

Collectivist: A person who subscribes to the collectivistic perspective, which stresses the importance of group goals over individual goals and focuses on the community or broader society. (ch. 1, p. 27)

Commissioned: A high authoritative status conferred on OPP officers, usually in recognition of their leadership and management abilities. (ch. 2, p. 60)

Common law: Law that is developed by judges when deciding cases, rather than through legislative enactments. (ch. 5, p. 137)

Community policing: A proactive policing strategy whereby police work in partnership with the community to identify and analyze policing problems, determine policing priorities, and implement responses. (ch. 3, p. 71)

Community service order: An order imposed by the court requiring the offender to complete up to 240 hours of volunteer work. (ch. 10, p. 262)

CompStat: A strategic process for collecting, mapping, and analyzing data designed to guide police operations, reduce crime, and ensure the accountability of management in the police agency. (ch. 3, p. 85)

Computerized assessment: An efficient way to screen for mental disorders using the Computerized Mental Health Intake Screening System (CoMHISS), which combines self-report measures such as the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Depression Hopelessness and Suicide Screening Form, and the Paulhus Deception Scales. Results of the study suggested that the CoMHISS could effectively identify those who should be further evaluated for the presence of a mental disorder. (ch. 12, p. 311)

Conditional release: Release from prison before the expiry of the sentence subject to requirements set by the releasing authority. (ch. 11, p. 268)

Conditional sentence: A sentence served in the community and supervised by probation and parole officers. Offenders are required to abide by a number of conditions that, if breached, may result either in additional conditions to comply with or in incarceration. (ch. 10, p. 262)

Constable: The lowest rank of office held by a sworn police officer; a position ordinarily assigned to front-line uniformed officers in the initial stages of a police career. (ch. 2, p. 47)

Corroboration: A legal term that refers to evidence that supports or "backs up" information the police already have. It serves to confirm information that has been reported to police. (ch. 16.7, p. 455)

Crime analysts: Those who collect, organize, and analyze data from police documents, and other law enforcement and non-law enforcement sources. They produce maps, graphs and reports that assist in identifying suspects, crime patterns and trends, as well as the allocation of police resources. (ch. 3, p. 77)

Crime funnel: See Attrition (ch. 1, p. 20)

Crime rate: A measure of how much crime is known about for any given region or population, calculated by adding up all of the criminal incidents that have been reported to the police and dividing by the population (i.e., rate per every 100,000 persons). Because it does not include information about any crimes that were not reported, the crime rate is only one indicator of how much crime really occurs. (ch. 1, p. 14)

Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act: Act that authorizes Canadian courts to assume jurisdiction over crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, and any other crime recognized under international law — a power referred to as "universal jurisdiction." It also allows courts to assume jurisdiction over international crimes committed within Canada or abroad by Canadian citizens and state officials. (ch. 5, p. 150)

Criminogenic: Producing or tending to produce crime or criminal behaviour. (ch. 15, p. 402)

Criminogenic needs: Known risk factors that increase the likelihood that an individual will reoffend. (ch. 13, p. 349)

Criminogenic (or dynamic) risk factors: Factors contributing to an individual's criminal behaviour that are possible to change, such as substance abuse or negative peers. If change occurs, the risk for continued criminal behaviour is reduced. (ch. 10, p. 257)

Culpable homicide: Causing the death of another person, directly or indirectly, by any means; defined in s. 222 of the Criminal Code and divided into categories — murder, manslaughter, or infanticide. (ch. 5, 143)

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D

Dark figure of crime: Refers to criminal activity that is not reported to police. The term reminds us that the total amount of crime in any given society is impossible to know. (ch. 1, p. 15)

Declaration of Principle: The guiding philosophy of the Young Offenders Act that is laid out in 13 phrases following a definition of terms. This was a significant change from the Juvenile Delinquents Act, which did not explain the philosophy until the end of the legislation. (ch. 13, p. 342); The policy framework expressed in s. 3 of the Youth Criminal Justice Act that is meant to guide interpretation of the Act and to inform every process contained in the Act. (ch. 14, p. 360)

Deferred custody and supervision order: A community-based alternative to a custodial sentence. A judge may order a youth to be placed in custody but then defer custody and release the youth into the community subject to conditions and supervision. The order must not exceed six months. If the youth breaches any of the conditions, he or she may be placed back in custody to complete the remainder of the sentence. (Part Five Case Study, p. 325)

Denunciation: A condemnation or criticism of another's actions. (ch. 8, p. 214)

Determinism: Philosophical idea that all human actions are a result of previous acts. Free will, in contrast, suggests that individuals can choose their actions and are not completely influenced by pre-existing events. (ch. 1, p. 27)

Deterrence: Disincentive to commit a crime; an effect of arrest and incarceration. (ch. 8, p. 214); A philosophical approach to crime that focuses on what forms of punishment are necessary to prevent crime from happening. It has two forms: specific and general. Specific deterrence seeks to punish the individual offender just enough so as to stop her from committing any future crimes. The assumption is that the offender will have learned the consequences of crime and will choose not to suffer them again. General deterrence seeks to punish offenders severely enough that the general population will choose not to commit crime. This approach aims to make an example of the offender so as to teach everyone the "costs" of crime. (ch. 1, p. 26)

Discretion: The decision-making process and judgment police officers use when determining how best to deal with a situation they encounter. Other branches of the criminal justice system, including the courts and corrections, also have discretionary powers that can influence the outcome of cases. (ch. 4, p. 114)

Disparity: In a legal context, the difference or inconsistency among judges with respect to sentencing. (ch. 8, 204)

Disposition: The specific sanction imposed by a judge in sentencing a person who has been convicted of an offence. For example, Joe is sentenced to imprisonment; the disposition is four years. (ch. 8, p. 215)

Diversion: Sentencing approach in which offenders are given an opportunity to perform some community service or are referred to a community agency to better address their needs instead of being processed through the youth court system. Under the Youth Criminal Justice Act, diversion is called "extrajudicial measures and sanctions." (ch. 13, p 343)

Doli incapax doctrine: Belief that a child of tender years is incapable of an unlawful act. (ch. 13, p. 334)

Double jeopardy: The constitutional right not to be tried again for an offence for which there was a previous conviction or acquittal. (ch. 6, p. 173)

Dual charge policy: In cases of domestic violence, where the police are not able to discern which of the two parties is the perpetrator, both partners will be charged. (ch. 16.4, p. 435)

Dynamic risk factors (or criminogenic needs): Factors such as substance abuse and negative peers that contribute to an individual's criminal behaviour but are possible to change. (ch. 9, p. 246)

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E

E-snitch: A term for jailhouse informants who gather information about a case using the Internet. News reports, blogs, and personal websites often provide enough detail about a crime to enable informants to falsify entire confessions rather convincingly. (ch. 16.7, p. 453)

Environmental design: Fashioning and developing the physical and built landscape, most often in an urban or suburban setting. (ch. 15, p. 405)

Etiology: The study of causation or origination. (ch. 15, p. 405)

Exigent circumstances: Situations in which people are in imminent danger of bodily harm or death, in which there is risk of imminent loss or destruction of evidence, or in which a suspect will escape. (ch. 4, p. 106)

Extrajudicial measures: Informal ways in which police may keep a young person out of the youth justice system by using such means as warnings, cautions, or referrals to a community agency for help. (ch. 14, p. 362)

Extrajudicial sanctions: More formal ways of handling a youth case outside of court, administered by the Crown. As with the alternative measures programs under the Young Offenders Act, youth may be required to complete community service. (ch. 14, p. 364)

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F

Faint hope clause: Gives persons convicted sentenced to life imprisonment without the eligibility for parole, the opportunity to apply for parole after they have served 15 years of their sentence. It is not permitted in cases where the offender has committed more than one murder. Following amendments to the Criminal Code in 2011, the clause was effectively removed and is no longer available for anyone whose offence was committed after December 2, 2011. (ch. 1, p. 18)

Federalism: A system of government in which all political authority is divided among a central, national, or federal government and regional political units, such as provinces. (ch. 5, p. 147)

Forensic psychology: The application of psychological research, methods, theories, and practices to a task faced by the legal system (Wrightsman & Fulero, 2005, p. 2). (ch. 7, p. 188)

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G

Gap principle: A principle whereby a judge, when deciding on an appropriate sentence for a repeat offender, considers how much time has passed since the offender's last conviction. (ch. 8, p. 208)

Gender identity disorder (GID): Where there is a conflict between the person's physical gender and his or her self-perceived gender (a person who is born physically male, but believes he is really female, for example). Specific diagnostic criteria for GID are outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). (ch. 12, p. 301)

Gentrification: The changes that result when middle-class or upper-middle-class individuals acquire and upgrade property in low-income and working-class neighbourhoods. (ch. 15, p. 408)

"Good and evil" Test: A child could be found guilty only if the state could establish that the child was able to distinguish between the concepts of good and evil. If a reasonable doubt were raised concerning the ability to perceive the difference, the child could not be punished. (ch. 13, p. 335)

Gradual release: The process by which a convict moves from higher levels of security through lower levels and eventually into the community under conditional release. (ch. 11, p. 270)

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H

Halfway house: A residential setting within the community that is staffed by professional workers who support offenders released on parole with the process of returning to the community. (ch. 10, p. 263)

Homophobia: Negative attitudes, including hatred, fear, and/or contempt, directed toward gays and lesbians. (ch. 12, p. 301)

Hot spots: Locations that experience a higher than average incidence of crime. (ch. 3, p. 85)

Hung jury: A jury that is not able to reach a unanimous verdict; that is, not all jurors can agree that the accused is guilty. (ch. 6, p. 173)

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I

Identification ("ident") officers: Police officers who are given specialized forensic training to investigate major crimes. (ch. 7, p. 183)

Ideology: A system of beliefs or assumptions about the correct or proper order of things, particularly with respect to morality and political arrangements; a value system that shapes a person's position on specific issues. (ch. 1, p. 8)

Incorrigible: Not able to be corrected or improved; beyond the care and control of parents. (ch. 13, p. 339)

Indeterminate: A disposition for juveniles that was not fixed in length. A young person could be held in custody until the youth was deemed by correctional authorities to no longer be seen as a threat to society or to be rehabilitated. (ch. 13, p. 339)

Indictment: A written accusation that sets out the charges against an accused person for a serious indictable offence. (ch. 6, p. 165)

Individualist: A person who subscribes to the individualistic perspective, which focuses on the protection of individual autonomy against obligations that may be imposed by social institutions such as the state. (ch. 1, p. 27)

Informal social control: The development, observance, and enforcement of local norms for appropriate public behaviour (Greenberg & Rohe, 1986, p. 80). (ch. 15, p. 400)

Information: A written complaint, sworn under oath by a citizen or more typically a police officer, alleging that the accused has committed a specific criminal offence. (ch. 4, p. 104; ch. 6, p. 165)

Information to obtain a search warrant (ITO): A document prepared and sworn by the person seeking a search warrant (usually a police officer) specifying the offence alleged, the place(s) to be searched, and the specific item(s) to be seized. (ch. 4, p. 107)

Intelligence: Information about suspects, their associates, and criminal activity that is gathered and analyzed in order to prevent or resolve crime. (ch. 3, p. 77)

Intelligence-led policing: A proactive policing strategy whereby police make strategic and tactical decisions based on intelligence. (ch. 3, p. 77)

Intensive rehabilitative custody and supervision orders (IRCS): A treatment sentence for youth who have been found guilty of murder, manslaughter, or aggravated sexual assault or who have committed three serious violent offences and are suffering from a mental, psychological, or emotional disorder. The IRCS order includes a treatment plan that the young person must agree to participate in while in custody and while being supervised during the reintegrative community portion of his or her sentence. (ch. 14, p. 376)

Interventions: Various strategies, such as treatment programs, job training, or upgrading education, used to help an offender learn alternatives to criminal behaviour. (ch. 10, p. 254)

Investigative psychology: Field of study that takes the scientific discipline of psychology — its principles, theories, and empirical findings — and applies it to investigations and the legal process. (ch. 7, p. 191)

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J

Judicial review: The process by which judges scrutinize laws, policies, and governmental practices to ensure their consistency with the Constitution, including the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. (ch. 5, p. 141)

Jurisdiction: The authority given to a police service to carry out law enforcement responsibilities within a defined geographic area (i.e., provincial vs. federal). (ch. 2, p. 47)

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L

Least restrictive measure: The principle that when there is a less onerous method of holding a young person accountable, it should be used rather than a more restrictive sanction, such as custody. (ch. 14, p. 373)

Legal justice: Refers to a system of principles by which individuals within a society should be treated and should treat one another, based on what the law dictates. The result, provided that the law is followed, is thought to be fair. Legal justice requires that the law be applied equally and fairly to everyone. (ch. 16.5, p. 439)

Locard's exchange principle: States that whenever objects come in contact with one another, there will be an exchange of material between them. (ch. 7, p. 182)

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M

McNaughton rule: Rule stipulating that a person cannot be convicted of a crime if, at the time of the offence, he or she had a mental defect or disease of the mind that made him or her unaware of the nature of his or her actions, or incapable of knowing that the act was wrong. (ch. 7, p. 195)

Meta-analysis: A statistical technique that compares a group of studies; a study of other studies that have been conducted on a particular topic or in a specific area of research. (ch. 14, 365)

Mens rea: The guilty mind or intentional element of a criminal offence — that is, what an accused knew or ought to have known about the consequences of prohibited conduct. If mens rea is proven beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with actus reus, an accused may be held criminally responsible for his or her conduct. (ch. 5, p. 143)

Methadone: A synthetic narcotic that is orally administered and is used in the treatment of opiate (e.g., heroin) addiction. (ch. 12, p. 304)

Miniature adults: How children were often depicted in the art of the Middle Ages — i.e., as short adults, with adult facial features. (ch. 13, p. 335)

Mitigating circumstances: Elements in the crime or in the life circumstances of an offender that may permit a judge to sentence the offender more leniently. (ch. 8, p. 208)

Modified objective standard: Used when a court changes the objective standard by which an accused's behaviour is judged. The modified standard allows the court to consider the specific characteristics of the accused and his or her circumstances at the time of the offence. The objective standard generally used is that of the "reasonable person." That is, in order to determine whether or not the accused acted reasonably, the court asks what a reasonable person would have done in the same situation. (ch. 5, p. 154)

Moral panic: A concept that refers to those times when people, groups, or events are defined and perceived to be a threat to security and public order (Cohen, 1972). Moral panic may be exacerbated when negative images of the target are presented in the media, which may lead to harsh and oppressive treatment of the target. (ch. 14, p. 357)

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N

Necessary in the public interest: One of the criteria that an arrest must meet if it is made without a warrant; defined in R. v. Mann (2004) as "reasonably necessary in light of all the circumstances." (ch. 6, p. 163)

Neighbourhood Watch: Also called Block Watch or Crime Watch, this structured program involves a group of neighbours organized to prevent crime and disorder problems within a residential neighbourhood or apartment building. Residents are trained to keep an eye out for suspicious individuals or activities and to call police when such circumstances are spotted. (ch. 15, p. 408)

Net widening: The effects of providing alternatives to incarceration that deal with offenders outside of the court system in order to reduce the numbers going to court and ultimately entering correctional systems. (ch. 1, p. 24)

Non-custodial interview: A police interview that occurs when a person is not in police custody (i.e., not arrested) and attends the interview voluntarily. The person is provided the police caution (i.e., right to silence) and is told that he or she is free to leave at any time during the interview. (ch. 3, p. 78)

Non-governmental organizations: Organizations that provide social services to community members who are not adequately addressed by governmental social service programs. (ch. 10, p. 262)

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O

Objectively reasonable: Where a person's thoughts or actions, measured by the "objective standard" used in courts to establish criminal responsibility, are deemed to be those that a reasonable person would have in a similar situation. (ch. 4, p. 115)

Offender profiling: The process of using all available information about a crime, a crime scene, and a victim in order to compose a profile of the unknown perpetrator (Ainsworth, 2001, p. 7). (ch. 7, p. 190)

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P

Paradigm shift: A change from one way of thinking to another, usually on a wide scale. It involves a revolution in basic assumptions about how a particular phenomenon or system works, resulting in a completely different worldview. (ch. 16.5, p. 440)

Paramilitary: Having features in common with a military organization, particularly in training and the organizational structure or chain of command. (ch. 2, p. 58)

Parens patriae ("parent of the nation"): The principle that the state acts as a "kindly parent" to dependent delinquents. (ch. 13, p. 338)

Parliamentary sovereignty: The principle by which Parliament is supreme over all other governmental institutions. (ch. 5, p. 147)

Parole: An early conditional supervised release from a custodial sentence. A person on parole has served a portion of the sentence within an institution. (ch. 10, p. 261)

Peacemaking criminology: Approaches to crime control emphasize the social component of crime, including the strong influence of inequality and oppression on offending. Its focus is on alleviating suffering, fostering peace, and advancing practices such as reconciliation, mediation, and conflict resolution as effective responses to crime. (ch. 16.5, p. 440)

Perimeter search: A search of the outside of a dwelling house and its surroundings; used as a method of acquiring sufficient information on which to base a search warrant application to search inside the house. (ch. 4, p. 107)

Perjury: The act of wilfully lying under oath usually before a judge (and/or jury) during a trial. It is a criminal offence in many countries, including Canada, as defined in s. 131 of the Criminal Code. (ch. 16.7, p. 453)

Personality tests: Standardized tests used to measure personality characteristics or discover personality disorders that might affect a person's ability to perform a specific job. (ch. 7, p. 189)

Preamble: The introductory part of a statute that, while not legally enforceable, contains significant statements from Parliament about the values on which the legislation is based. While technically outside the enacted legislation, the preamble is meant to guide the statute's interpretation by the courts, including the Supreme Court of Canada. (ch. 13, p. 343; ch. 14, p. 360)

Precedent: In common-law legal systems, an authoritative rule or principle established in a prior case that subsequent courts are obligated to apply in future cases. (ch. 5, p. 136)

Preventive patrol: A policing operation in which officers randomly monitor areas to discourage crime. (ch. 3, p. 79)

Prima facie: Legal presumption meaning "on the face of it" or "at first sight." Refers to a matter that appears to be self-evident from the facts. The term denotes evidence that, unless contested, would be sufficient to prove a particular fact in issue; the evidence need not be conclusive. (ch. 4, p. 105; ch. 6, p. 166)

Proactive policing: A policing strategy whereby police officers identify and respond to emerging problems, with the goal of preventing crime from occurring. (ch. 3, p. 68)

Probation: A sentence that is served within the community and that often comes with certain restrictions and conditions, such as regularly checking in with a probation and parole officer. (ch. 10, p. 255)

Problem-oriented policing: A proactive policing strategy whereby police focus on the problems that form the basis of crime. (ch. 3, p. 70)

Promise to appear: A form of release from custody whereby the accused agrees, in return for release, to show up at a police station to be fingerprinted and to attend court on specified dates. (ch. 3, p. 89)

Protective factors: Positive conditions, influences, or interventions that can increase the health and well-being of children and families by counteracting risk factors. (ch. 15, p. 402)

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Q

Quash: To reject or void the original sentence, thereby making it invalid. (ch. 14, p. 367)

Quasi-criminal law: Law that performs some of the same functions as criminal law (e.g., punishment, denunciation, protecting law and order) but through different procedures. (ch. 5, p. 149)

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R

Reactive policing: A policing strategy whereby police officers respond to calls for service either while an offence is in progress or after it has been committed. (ch. 3, p. 68)

Reasonable doubt: The standard of belief beyond which the prosecution must prove its case to obtain a criminal conviction; in other words, the defendant's guilt must be proven to the extent that "no reasonable person" could have a "reasonable doubt" about it. (ch. 7, p. 187)

Reasonable grounds: The required basis for arrest; more than a hunch or mere suspicion. (ch. 6, p. 163)

Recidivism: Relapsing into criminal behaviour after treatment and /or sentencing within the criminal justice system. Most simply, it can be thought of as "reoffending." An offender who reoffends after being released from a correctional service is said to recidivate. (ch. 1, p. 24; Part Four Case Study, p. 232)

Rehabilitation: The treatment of offenders in order to prevent future criminal activity; a planned intervention that targets some aspect about the offender that is thought to cause the offender's criminality (e.g., attitude, cognitive processes, social relationships, and employment); the process whereby a person recognizes that his or her behavior was wrong, fully understands why it was wrong, and decides not to behave that way in the future. (ch. 1, p. 26; ch. 8, p. 214; ch. 14, p. 358)

Reintegrate: Returning offenders to society as law-abiding and productive citizens. (ch. 8, p. 200)

Reintegration: The process whereby a person lives in the community in a law-abiding manner and maintains his or her decision not to continue with past destructive behaviour. (ch. 14, p. 358)

Remand: The holding of an accused in custody while he or she waits for trial or sentencing (as opposed to being granted bail, which would allow the individual to live in the community while awaiting trial). (ch. 8, p. 204; ch. 9, p. 237)

Risk factors: Factors that increase the risk of criminal or delinquent behaviour. (ch. 15, p. 402)

Risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model: Assessment and rehabilitation theory that suggests it is possible to accurately predict the likelihood that someone will reoffend and to effectively intervene to reduce the risk. (ch. 9, p. 246)

Root causes of crime: Social factors in our societies, cultures (family values), economy, and systems that are more likely to lead an individual to commit crime. Examples include peer influence, poverty, unemployment, poor neighbourhoods, and poor literacy. (ch. 1, p. 26)

Rule of law: The principle that all political authority must be exercised in accordance with fixed and predetermined legal rules and principles. (ch. 5, p. 140)

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S

Sanction: A penalty, such as a fine, probation, or incarceration, imposed on someone found guilty of a criminal offence. (ch. 10, p. 254)

The SARA Model: Developed to operationalize problem-oriented policing.
Scan: determine whether or not a problem exists
Analysis: learn everything possible about the problem
Respond: to the problem
Assess: evaluate the effectiveness of their response by looking at the process they followed and seeing if the problem was solved or reduced. (ch. 3, p. 72)

Scene of crime officers (SOCO): Usually police officers, but in rare cases may be civilian members who have taken similar training to investigate minor crimes. (ch. 7, p. 183)

Sentence: A judicial determination of the legal sanction to be given to a person who has been convicted of an offence. For example, Joe is sentenced to pay a fine of $100. (ch. 8, p. 199)

Serious bodily harm: Harm that includes any physical or psychological hurt or injury, as well as any interference with a person's comfort level, and that is not temporary (transient) or insignificant (trifling) in nature. (ch. 14, p. 375)

Severance: In criminal law, "severance" refers either to the "cutting away" of some charges from a multi-count indictment or to the separation of defendants in a joint trial so that each accused has to proceed with her case individually. (Part Three Case Study, p. 133)

Situational crime prevention (SCP): The management, design, or manipulation of the immediate physical and human environment so as to remove or reduce the opportunities for specific types of crimes. (ch. 15, p. 404)

Situational tests: Tests that present applicants with hypothetical job-related scenarios and ask them to identify appropriate responses from a list of alternatives. (ch. 7, p. 189)

Social control: Informal influences (e.g., disapproving frown from a parent) and formal influences (e.g., laws, regulations) on a person's behaviour. (ch. 9, p. 239)

Social justice: Concerned less with what the formal law says and more with defining justice in terms of human rights. In other words, the different social circumstances of individuals' lives, levels of inequality, and degrees of disadvantage are key considerations in determining how the law should be applied and what principles should govern individuals' relations with one another and the state. (ch. 16.5, p. 440)

Stare decisis: A legal principle by which judges are obliged to respect and apply legal principles established by prior decisions. (ch. 5, p. 140)

Statement: A written, audiotaped, or videotaped account, taken by a police officer from a witness or suspect, that may be used as evidence in court. (ch. 3, p. 78)

Static risk factors: Risk factors associated with criminal history that cannot be changed (e.g., age at first arrest). (ch. 9, p. 246; ch. 10, p. 259)

Status offences: Status offences are acts that are considered illegal only because of the age status of the offender. Examples of juvenile status offences include truancy, incorrigibility, and sexual precociousness (i.e., early interest in sexual activities). (ch. 13, p. 340)

Stayed: In the context of a legal case, this term refers to a "stay" of proceedings, which means that the court has effectively "paused" or suspended the case. A stay can be for a particular time period (e.g., until a witness can be found) or for an indefinite period. The Crown may start the proceedings again at any time, provided the time limit for doing so has not expired. In law, this time period is called a "statute of limitations." (Part Three Case Study, p. 132)

Substantive criminal law: Statutory and common law that prohibits undesirable conduct and that prescribes punishment for specific offences. (ch. 5, p. 135)

Sworn members: Members of a police service who have the full legal authority as police officers as defined in law. These officers have successfully completed the required training and have sworn an oath to uphold and enforce the law and to carry out their assigned duties. (ch. 2, p. 54)

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T

Targeted patrol: A policing operation in which officers monitor specific locations that have been identified through crime mapping and analysis or problem-solving processes as places where offences are occurring or are likely to occur. (ch. 3, p. 79)

Throwaway children: Children who have become state wards and fallen through the cracks of the various systems (child welfare, health, education, youth justice) and do not have guardians or parents to advocate on their behalf for services and treatment. (ch. 14, p. 373)

Trace evidence: Evidence such as blood or other body fluids (e.g., saliva, semen), fingerprints, hair, teeth marks, fibres from clothing or carpets, flakes of skin left under fingernails, or dirt left on clothing or shoes. (ch. 7, p. 182)

Truancy: Students who voluntarily choose to skip or not attend school. It refers only to compulsory schooling — that is, where the law requires students to attend. In Canada, school is compulsory for everyone up to the age of 16, except in Ontario, New Brunswick, and Manitoba, where all youths are required to attend school until the age of 18. (Part One Case Study, p. 5)

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U

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: A human rights treaty that provides rights to children throughout the world in all countries except the United States and Somalia. Within the articles of the convention, there are express rights for young persons in conflict with the law that are now reflected within the YCJA. (ch. 13, p. 346)

Use of force: Amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject. (ch. 4, p. 112)

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V

Victim impact statement: A written document made by the victim that describes the harm done to the victim and the effect the crime has had on his or her life. (ch. 16.3, p. 426)

Victimology: A subfield of criminology interested in the study of victims. This includes understanding the experiences of victims during and after crime, as well as examining the factors that may influence who becomes a victim, or how offenders choose victims. This field of study is also associated with strong activism for victims' rights, support, and advocacy for greater involvement during the various stages of the criminal justice system. (ch. 16.3, p. 426)

Victims: Persons who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are a violation of criminal law (UN Resolution 40/34, Part A[1]). (ch. 16.3, p. 426)

Viva voce: A statement made orally to the court. (ch. 6, p. 174)

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W

Waiver: The giving up of a right. May be done expressly, or it may be implied from the circumstances. (ch. 4, p. 105)

White-collar crime: The illegal and fraudulent activities of corporate executives, business personnel, and other persons of high social status that are committed for the purposes of financial gain. These crimes are typically committed during the course of one's employment, and while not considered directly violent, they can have violent consequences, as was the case with the 2001 Enron scandal. (ch. 1, p. 22)

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Z

Zero tolerance: A disciplinary approach that advocates automatic punitive responses to all types of disorder and crime problems, no matter how minor, with the intention of eliminating undesirable conduct through punishment and deterrence. For example, fighting in school means an automatic suspension. (ch. 14, p. 401)

 
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