This Earth: Physical Geography and the Environment

Unit 1   •    Unit 2   •    Unit 3   •    Unit 4   •    Unit 5   •    BOOK INFO

Unit 1

Forged in Fire

TOPIC 1

The Origin of Our Universe

PAGE

REFERENCE

11

“distance from the sun” under The Blue Planet

13

“unanswered questions” under The Big Bang

14

“steps of the Nebular Hypothesis” in Figure 1.1.2 caption

15

Glossary term: “accretion”

16

“Why are craters on the Moon more visible than most craters on Earth?” in Figure 1.1.4 caption

17

“Giant Impact Hypothesis” in last paragraph on page

18

“Apollo space program” in second point under Think It Through

TOPIC 2

The Nature of the Solar System

PAGE

REFERENCE

23

“composition accounts for their low densities” in last paragraph on page

24

Glossary term: “escape velocity”

25

“Chicxlulub Crater”

27

“comet Shoemaker-Levy 9” under The Threat of Asteroids Today

TOPIC 3

Earth’s Interior Structure

PAGE

REFERENCE

29

Glossary term: “radioactive decay”

31

“subdunction zones” in second bulletted point

33

“meteor at Nakla, Egypt” under Geofact

34

“seismology” under Seismology

36

“arrival of life” under The Arrival of Life

TOPIC 4

The Earth System

PAGE

REFERENCE

40

“(UNCED)” under The World Focuses on the Earth System

40

“Severn Suzuki” quoted at bottom of page

42

“Canada’s participation at the earth summits” in number 5 under Think It Through

46

“eruption of a volcano” under How Interactions Change the Spheres

TOPIC 5

What Goes Around Comes Around

PAGE

REFERENCE

48

“solar energy” in first bullet under The Energy Cycle

51

“our food choices” in Figure 1.5.5 caption

52

“biogeochemical cycles” in last paragraph on page

54

“carbon sink” under The Carbon Cycle near figure

57

“marine ecosystem” in paragraph above Review and Reflect

58

“synthetic fertilizers” in last paragraph on page

59

“surface waters” in second line of text

60

“. . . can the rainforests be saved?” under Interrupting the Cycles: Can the Rainforests Be Saved?

62

“pharmaceuticals” under The Impact on the Economy

62

“fruit” under The Impact on the Economy

67

“species” under Species, Populations, and Habitats

68

“one biotic and one abiotic element” in Figure 1.6.2 caption

70

“ecosystem in your province or territory” in second item under Review and Reflect

71

“the Thelon Wildlife Sanctuary” under Protecting Our Natural Spaces

74

“interactive map” in first item under Think It Through

77

“protecting these monocultures”

79

“Canadian Society of Zoologists” in third item under Investigate Further

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Unit 2

From the Ground Up

TOPIC 1

The Lithosphere

PAGE

REFERENCE

86

“properties of rocks and minerals” in first line of second paragraph under Rocks, Minerals, and Elements

89

“region where you live” in second item of Review and Reflect

92

“half-lives of certain elements” in second paragraph under Absolute Time

TOPIC 2

Continents Adrift

PAGE

REFERENCE

96

“broke apart”in second paragraph under Early Ideas About Plate Movements

99

“Ocean ridges” in the Geo-Fact section

TOPIC 3

Volcanic Activity

PAGE

REFERENCE

114

“Canada has a number of volcanoes” in second item under Review and Reflect

116

“US Geological Service’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)” in second item under Think it Through

116

“webcams” in second item under Think it Through

TOPIC 4

Seismic Activity

PAGE

REFERENCE

123

“P waves and S waves” under Body Waves

127

“Liquefaction” in second bullet under Earthquake Hazards

131

“new emergency response plan” in second paragraph from the top

133

“Lituya Bay” in Geo-Fact section

134

“Phuket, Thailand” in last paragraph on page

135

“all the way to California” under Tsunamis in Canada

136

“NOAA” under The DART System

138

“Provincial Emergency Program” in third item under Think It Through

141

“Sugarloaf Mountain” in Figure 2.5.3 caption

TOPIC 5

Wear and Tear on the Earth

PAGE

REFERENCE

142

“Hydrolysis” in first bullet under Chemical Weathering

142

“feldspar” in first bullet paragraph under Chemical Weathering

143

“Oxidation” in bullet near Figure 2.5.5

145

“Solifluction” in Figure 2.5.8

146

“reduce the risk of mass wasting” second line under Minimizing the Effects of Mass Wasting

147

“Frank, Alberta” in first line under The Frank Slide: The Mountain That Walked

TOPIC 6

Natural Resources

PAGE

REFERENCE

151

“International Mineralogical Association (IMA)” in Geo-Fact section

152

“more than 60 minerals” in first bullet on page

156

“reclamation” bold, in first line under Closure/Rehabilitation/Monitoring

156

“reclamation in the 1990s” in Figure 2.6.12 caption

158

“responded” in first line of second paragraph under Learning from the Past

159

“What are some potential impacts of oil and gas exploration and production on the Arctic environment?” in Figure 2.6.18 caption

163

“in situ (in place) techniques” in second paragraph on page

166

“dirty oil?” at end of the first item under Think It Through

TOPIC 7

Flow Resources

PAGE

REFERENCE

168

“Conference Board of Canada” in the first line of the second paragraph under Electric Power Generation in Canada

173

“status of the Three gorges Dam” in first item under Think It Through

180

“different greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (NO2)” in second paragraph under Biomass and Biofuels

TOPIC 8

Wear and Tear on the Earth

PAGE

REFERENCE

184

“Agricultural Revolution” in last line of paragraph under Agricultural Patterns

186

“potato famine of 1845-1852” in Geo-Fact section

187

“could not afford” in first bullet on page

189

“learn more about sustainable agriculture” in first line under How Is Canada Doing?

191

“Flavr Savr tomato” in press release under Genetically Modified Organisms

195

“costs” in first item under Physical Implications

195

“benefits” in first item under Physical Implications

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Unit 3

The World’s Water

Overview

PAGE

REFERENCE

198

“Images of the Earth from space” beginning first paragraph under Overview: The World’s Water

TOPIC 1

The World’s Water

PAGE

REFERENCE

201

“scarce commodity” in second paragraph under The Importance of Fresh Water

204

“distribution” in first item under Review and Reflect

206

“Canada’s largest watersheds” in middle of first paragraph under Watersheds

206

“Commission for Environmental Cooperation” in last paragraph on page

208

“stream velocity” at beginning of paragraph under Stream Characteristics and Functions

212

“river closest to your community” in third item under Review and Reflect

213

“record rainfall and flooding” at end of second paragraph under The Great Flood of 1993: What Lessons Were Learned?

213

“200 to 350 percent greater than normal” at end of first paragraph under Rain, Rain, Go Away …

215

“wide media coverage” in the first line of the second paragraph under Groundwater

TOPIC 2

Oceans and Coastal Landscapes

PAGE

REFERENCE

218

“Gulf Stream” in third paragraph under Currents

221

“Bowie Seamount” in first paragraph on page

222

“hydrothermal vents” in second last line of paragraph under Hydrothermal Vents

229

“Jetties” in paragraph under Efforts to Remedy Shoreline Erosion

232

“two periods of high tide and two periods of low tide” at end of paragraph under Actions of the Tides

234

“ocean levels are rising” in first line under Sea Levels on the Rise

235

“appears to be sitting in water” in first line under Venice is Sinking!

TOPIC 3

Glaciers: Nature’s Bulldozers

PAGE

REFERENCE

238

“Ice shelves” in second bullet on page

240

“accumulation…ablation” bold terms in second paragraph under Glacial Formation and Movement

241

“B15” in Geo-Fact section

253

“generating electricity” in first paragraph under Impacts of Glaciation on Canada

255

“rapid change” in last line under What the Ice Cores Reveal

TOPIC 4

Water Management

PAGE

REFERENCE

257

Bold term: “water availability” in second paragraph on page

257

Bold term: “water quality” in second paragraph on page

259

“global assessment” in second line of last paragraph on page

260

“affected regions” at end of third line of first paragraph under Water Scarcity

262

“‘Human Components of Watersheds’map” in third item under Review and Reflect

265

Bold term: “virtual water” in first paragraph under bullets

265

“external (foreign) consumption of water” in second-last line of paragraph under bullets

268

Bold term: “Global Commons” in first paragraph under Who Owns the Water?

270

Bold term: “water apartheid” in first row, second column of table

TOPIC 5

Water Polution

PAGE

REFERENCE

274

“152 nations” in first paragraph under bullets

278

“groundwater studies” in third item under Review and Reflect

280

“fire on the Cuyahoga River” in first paragraph under Great Lakes Threats

283

“Stormwater Run-off Management” in second heading on page

283

“removing these combined sewers” in second paragraph under Stormwater Run-off Management

TOPIC 6

Oceans in Peril

PAGE

REFERENCE

287

“Oil Spills” in first heading on page

289

“Great Pacific Garbage Patch” in Figure 3.6.7 caption

290

“oceans” in first item of Review and Reflect

290

“Good Morning America” in third item under Review and Reflect

290

“PBS” in third item under Review and Reflect

293

“history” in first item under Review and Reflect

295

“claim to the Arctic” in second item under Think It Through

297

“conventions or protocols” in second item under Review and Reflect

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Unit 4

The World’s Water

TOPIC 1

Atmospheric Dynamics

PAGE

REFERENCE

303

“lifestyle changes” in last paragraph on page

307

Bold term: “atmospheric pressure” at end of second paragraph under Circulation in the Atmosphere

307

Bold term: “Coriolis effect” in last paragraph on page

309

Bold term: “summer solstice” in first paragraph under Figure 4.1.5

TOPIC 2

Weather and Climate

PAGE

REFERENCE

315

“anti-cyclones” near end of third paragraph under Fronts and Lows

317

“occluded front” in Figure 4.2.4

319

“different models” in second sentence of first paragraph under Forecasting Weather

321

“difference between climate and weather” in second item under Think It Through

323

“weather map” in second item under Review and Reflect

TOPIC 3

Storms

PAGE

REFERENCE

325

Bold term: “convection cells” in second paragraph under Thunderstorms and Lightning

328

“Canada’s tornado alleys” at beginning of second paragraph on page

330

“as of August 2009” in third item under Review and Reflect

334

“still recovering” at end of second line in first paragraph under Hurricane Katrina—Lessons from the Storm

TOPIC 4

Decertification add Aeolian Transport

PAGE

REFERENCE

338

“Atacama Desert” in Geo-Fact section

341

“Namib Desert” in Figure 4.4.6 caption

346

“at risk of desertification” in third line of last paragraph on page

347

“United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification” in first paragraph under Combatting Desertification

348

“solutions” in second item under Review and Reflect

TOPIC 5

Air Pollution

PAGE

REFERENCE

352

“asbestos” in last bullet under Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

353

“Health Canada” at beginning of first line under Improving IAQ

356

“monitoring” toward the end of the first paragraph under Ozone Depletion

358

“Know the Numbers” in Figure 4.5.10 caption

360

“in your region” in second item under Review and Reflect

362

“Shanghai, China” in the third item under Think It Through

TOPIC 6

Climate Change in the Arctic

PAGE

REFERENCE

364

“global warming” in the last sentence of the second paragraph under Greenhouse Earth

365

“affects climates around the globe” in last sentence of paragraph under Rising Temperatures in the Arctic

367

“Thermohaline circulation” at beginning of first paragraph under Disruptions to the Thermohaline Circulation System

372

“mayor of Churchill” in second item under Think It Through

TOPIC 7

Protecting the Atmosphere

PAGE

REFERENCE

374

Bold term: “life cycle assessment (LCA)” in first paragraph under Life Cycle Assessment

381

“may gain public acceptance” in last sentence of first paragraph under Carbon Taxes

382

“cap-and-trade” in third line under Carbon Credits

384

“including Canada” at the end of second line in paragraph above After Kyoto

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Unit 5

Challenges for the Future

TOPIC 1

The World’s Water

PAGE

REFERENCE

393

“Canadian Disaster Database” in third line of paragraph under Natural Disasters in Canada

394

“geology” in second item under Review and Reflect

394

“climate” in second item under Review and Reflect

399

“DART missions” in first item under Think It Through

TOPIC 2

The Hydrosphere Under Stress: Water for the World?

PAGE

REFERENCE

403

“FAO” in Geo-Fact section

405

“Malaria” in top-right section of Figure 5.2.5

405

“Schistosomiasis” at bottom of Figure 5.2.5

405

“Trachoma”on right side of Figure 5.2.5

407

“conferences held since 2000” in first line of last paragraph on page

TOPIC 3

The Atmosphere Under Stress—Climate Change: Consequences and Solutions

PAGE

REFERENCE

411

“Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)” in paragraph above Current Trends

413

“fall of 2009” in first item under Think It Through

415

“rate” in third item under Review and Reflect

TOPIC 4

Population Pressures and Built Environments

PAGE

REFERENCE

422

“family planning and modern contraception” in second bullet on page

426

“UN World Food Program” at beginning of paragraph introducing bullets

429

“municipal governments” in second last paragraph on page

429

“difficulties and challenges” in Figure 5.4.6 caption

430

Bold term in caption under “EcoDensity Charter Principles” box on left side of page: “ecodensity”

432

“protect our water sources”

433

Bold term in first paragraph on page: “Wastewater”

TOPIC 5

The Threats to Biodiversity

PAGE

REFERENCE

436

“Somalia” in Geo-Fact section

442

“Jane Goodall Institute” in photo caption at bottom of page

443

“Congo Basin” in first item under Think it Through

445

“species at risk” in first part of second item under Review and Reflect

TOPIC 6

The Power of One: Taking Personal Responsibility for the Sustainability of the Planet

PAGE

REFERENCE

450

“Earth Hour” at end of first line under Individuals and Sustainable Development

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